This is not about a specific time, date, or season. Instead, this is about each individual golfer having a time when they play golf better than other times. This is along the topic of studies that have been done to show when people are at their peak for work performance. Each person peaks for different things at different times.
Let's take me for example. I am not much of a morning person. I like to be up for a few hours move around, drink some caffeine, and eat before doing just about anything. Although I am capable of playing good golf teeing off at 7 am I play better both physically and mentally when teeing off between 11 am and 2 pm. If I tee off after 2 pm about halfway through the round I will sometimes start to feel a bit tired.
Some people are early risers and function at their peak for most things before noon. This means they are more productive in this time frame. This also means their focus for most tasks they do throughout the day is higher as well. These golfers probably play better golf before noon. They are more focused on each shot, have the ability to read putts better, visualize shots better, and have the physical stamina for a full round of golf.
On the opposite end are those types of people that function at their peak later in the afternoon. This type of person will have their best focus and creative thinking usually between 3 pm and 8 pm. This is the golfer that will play better with the later tee times or during the twilight hours. This golfer would also most likely be considered a night owl who's more productive doing almost anything later in the evening and doesn't go to bed until around midnight or later.
Every golfer has the ability to play well at any given time if they do specific things or create a routine before every round of golf. If you are like me and need to be up moving around for a few hours before a round of golf that may include setting an alarm for 3 am for a 7 am tee time. As long as you know what works best for you and at what time of the day you play better than others you can then re-create that time by changing how your day will go. If you know you play your best right after having lunch but have a 10 am tee time, re-create your day so you have your lunch at 9 am, or have a later breakfast.
On the other hand, if you feel you play your best golf at 2 pm then just try and book more rounds around that time of day. I make a point to get tee times around 11 am just about every time I play. this is especially true if I play alone. Sometimes however we have to be accommodating to our golfing friends and take that earlier or later tee time.
If you are uncertain as to what times you may play your best golf start to track your scores based on your tee times. You may start to see a pattern showing you have better rounds early in the morning than you do in the afternoon. You could also do this with the weather. Do you play when the temperature is above or below a certain temperature?
For a further example: I have tracked all of this before. I have my better rounds teeing off at 11:30 am with the temperature between 85°F and 90°F. My worst rounds are usually teeing off before 8 am and when the temperature is below 65°F.
Test this out for yourself and see if you have a better time of day that you play better golf.